Huangshan Mountain, formerly called Yishan Mountain, is one of the ten celebrated scenic spots in China and the only one in mountainous region. It is located within the boundaries of Huangshan Mountain municipality in the south of Anhui Province. The Huangshan Mountain Mountains is about 40 km across form north to south and 30 km from east to west. Its sight – seeing area covers 154 square kilometers, so it is known as “five – hundred – li Huangshan Mountain”.
Owing to the peculiar terrain, the Yellow Mountains’ climate is marked by a vertical change, and the vertical distribution of vegetation is also distinctive: plants on the summit, on the middle levels and at the foot belong to the frigid, temperate and subtropical zones respectively. There are more than 1500 species of plants, of which trees comprise one third. So the Yellow Mountains occupy an important place in China’s botanical research. Here you will find century-old pines, firs ginkgoes, Chinese torreyas, Chinese sweet gums, nanmus, camphorwoods and the precious Magua trees, remnants of the glacial era. The Yellow Mountains abound in flowering plants; many of them are rare ones, such as Goddess Flower, the Yellow Mountains Azalea as well as camellia, plum, lily crape myrtle, orchid, Spring Herald Ina Flower and so on. It has a rich store of medicinal herbs; more than 300 kinds are found here, the notable ones being glossy ganoderma, ginseng, Chinese goldthread rhizome and Chinese cinnamon. Maofeng tea of the Yellow Mountains is well known at home and abroad.
The Huangshan mountain range comprises many peaks, 77 of which exceed 1,000 m in altitude. The three tallest peaks are Lotus Peak (Lian Hua Feng, 1,864 m, 30°07′N, 118°10′E), nearby Bright Summit Peak (Guang Ming Ding, 1,840 m) and Celestial Peak (Tian Du Feng, literally Capital of Heaven Peak, 1,829 m). The World Heritage Site covers a core area of 154 square kilometres and a buffer zone of 142 square kilometres. The mountains were formed in the Mesozoic, about 100 million years ago, when an ancient sea disappeared due to uplift. Later, in the Quaternary, the landscape was shaped by the influence of glaciers. In many cases, stone pillar forests were formed.
Since the Qin Dynasty, Huangshan had been known as the Yishan. It got its present name in 747 AD, when the poet Li Po referred to it by this name in his writing.